Volume 52 Issue 4
Jul.  2021
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HAO Xin-yan, ZHANG Yuan-dong, HOU Ying-ying, et al. Applying Chitosan-Modified Nanoemulsion in Nasal Vaccine Delivery[J]. JOURNAL OF SICHUAN UNIVERSITY (MEDICAL SCIENCES), 2021, 52(4): 592-597. doi: 10.12182/20210760104
Citation: HAO Xin-yan, ZHANG Yuan-dong, HOU Ying-ying, et al. Applying Chitosan-Modified Nanoemulsion in Nasal Vaccine Delivery[J]. JOURNAL OF SICHUAN UNIVERSITY (MEDICAL SCIENCES), 2021, 52(4): 592-597. doi: 10.12182/20210760104

Applying Chitosan-Modified Nanoemulsion in Nasal Vaccine Delivery

doi: 10.12182/20210760104
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  • Corresponding author: E–mail: sunxun@scu.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2021-03-15
  • Rev Recd Date: 2021-06-04
  • Available Online: 2021-07-22
  • Publish Date: 2021-07-20
  •   Objective  To prepare a chitosan-modified cationic nanoemulsion that could be used to prolong the residence time of nasal vaccines in the nasal cavity and improve the cellular uptake efficiency so as to enhance the immune efficacy of nasal vaccines.  Methods  A nanoemulsion-based vaccine coated with chitosan was prepared, and the particle size, potential, antigen encapsulation efficiency, stability as well as cytotoxicity were examined. The uptake efficiency of vaccine on different cells and the residence time of vaccine in the nasal cavity were measured. Finally, nasal vaccine was administered on mice and the antibody levels in the serum and in the nasal lavage fluids of the immunized mice were examined.  Results  The nanoemulsion-based vaccine had an average particle size of (167.2±0.75) nm, a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.21±0.01, and an average potential of (13.7±0.85) mV. The encapsulation efficiency of antigen was 92.7%. The nanoemulsion-based vaccine had good stability and did not show obvious cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. The vaccine demonstrated relatively high cellular uptake of antigens on DC2.4 and MDCK cells at (49.7±3.45)% and (59.7±2.19)%, respectively. Besides, the cationic nanoemulsion also significantly increased the residence time of the antigen, and a considerable amount of nanoemulsion-based vaccine was found remaining in the nasal cavity 60 minutes after administration. Compared with free antigen and the nanoemulsion without chitosan modification, the chitosan-modified nanoemulsion vaccine induced higher systemic and mucosal antibody levels in mice after nasal immunization (P<0.01).  Conclusion  The chitosan-modified nanoemulsion vaccine prepared in the study can enhance the immune efficacy of nasal vaccines, showing great potential to be used as a delivery carrier for nasal vaccines.
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