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Objective To examine copper transporter 1 (CTR1) expression in pancreatic carcinoma cells, orthotopicxenograft pancreatic tumor model and clinical samples, and verify the effect of copper chelating agent ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TM) regulate the expression of CTR1 in pancreatic carcinoma cells and the inhibition of pancreatic carcinoma. Methods The expression of copper transporter CTR1 and antioxidant protein 1 (ATOX1) in 22 clinical pancreatic ductal carcinoma and paracancer tissues 0.5-1 cm away from the tumor were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PANC-1 cells were used to construct 5 orthotopic xenograft pancreatic tumor of nude mice models. Pancreatic cancer tissues and corresponding normal pancreatic tissues were collected, and the expression of CTR1 and ATOX1 were detected by IHC and compared with clinical tissues. The proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma cells PANC-1 treated with 10, 30, 50, 100 μmol/L TM for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h measured by CCK8 assay. The migration abilities of PANC-1 cells treated with 50 μmol/L TM for 24 h, 48 h were detected by scratch test. The expression of CTR1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CyclinD1 proteins in PANC-1 cells treated with 10, 30, 50, 100 μmol/L TM for 48 h measured by Western blot. Then the subcutaneous tumor-bearing model of nude mice were established with PANC-1 cells, and the growth of tumor was observed after oral administration of 0.3 mg/d and 1.0 mg/d of TM, respectively. Results The immunohistochemical results indicated that 19 of the 22 clinical pancreatic ductal cancer tissues of carcinoma patients had high expression of CTR1, and the same high expression of CTR1 was found in the orthotopic transplanted tumor tissues of PANC-1 nude mice. The proliferation inhibition of PANC-1 cells increased with the concentration of TM increased and the treatment time prolonged. The expression of intracellular CTR1, VEGF and CyclinD1 all decreased with the concentration of TM increased. The cell migration ability decreased after the PANC-1 cells treated with TM. The tumor growth of PANC-1 tumor-bearing nude mice was inhibited after different doses of TM were delivered. The reduction in tumor volume and weight was more pronounced in the high-dose TM group (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of CTR1 is abnormally elevated in pancreatic carcinoma, and treatment with copper chelating agent for this target may help to inhibit pancreatic carcinoma.
Objective To provide a scientific evaluation of the food safety of the rice biofortified with β-glucan. Methods The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the rice were evaluated by 14-day feeding experiment, Ames experiment, erythrocyte micronucleus test and mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase gene (TK) mutation assay respectively. Results In the acute toxicity test, there was no obvious toxicity of rice biofortified with β-glucan, and no abnormality was found in anatomical observation. The median lethal dose (LD50) to rats and mice wereall greater than 15 mg/kg, which belonged to the actual non-toxic level. Whether with S9 activation or not, no genotoxicity was found to the tested strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535. No induction of polychromatic erythrocytes and inhibition of bone marrow were found in erythrocyte micronucleus test. The results of TK gene mutation assay did not show the mutagenicity of β-glucan bioaugmentation rice. All results of the three genotoxicity tests were negative. Conclusion Under the current experimental conditions, β-glucan biofortified rice showed no obvious acute toxicity and genotoxicity.
History and clinical findings: A 76 year-old woman with 8-year history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was admitted with gangrene of left great toe, 3rd, 4th and 5th toes. Twenty months ago, She started to receive hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease . She did not have any history of reactive airway disease nor bradycardia that would contraindicate the use of topical beta-blocker. The X-ray of left lower limb and foot showed calcification of left superficial femoral artery, popliteal artery, anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery, dorsal foot artery and digital artery, as well as osteolytic destruction at distal end of metatarsal bone, and lateral dislocation of the 4th and 5th toes. Color Doppler ultrasound of bilateral lower extremity arteries showed obvious calcification of bilateral superficial femoral arteries, thrombosis of left popliteal artery, severe stenosis of left anterior tibial artery, occlusion of left posterior tibial artery, right anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of bilateral lower limb arteries revealed moderate stenosis of left superficial femoral artery, occlusion of left popliteal artery, left posterior tibial artery and dorsal pedal artery, occulusion of right posterior tibial artery, but right dorsal pedal artery was visible. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up : Diagnosis of diabetic foot (left, grade 4 ) and diabetic lower extremity arterial occlusion (left, stage 4) was made. Based on multidisciplinary team ( MDT) discussion, the patient was unable to undergo vascular bypass surgery, and left lower extermity amputation also was not suitable because of right atrial thrombosis.Therefore, conservative treatment was recommended. The specific scheme used clopidogrel for antiplatelet agglutination, Low Molecular Weight Heparin (Clexane) and warfarin for anticoagulation, lipo-alprostadil for vasodilation, as well as local debridement and ultrasonic debridement.The treatments were given for up to 9 weeks, but with no significant clinical response. So the patient was treated with vacuum-assisted closure and autologous platelet-rich gel therapy for the next 7 weeks, then applied with 1 drop of timolol maleate 0.5% ophthalmic solution per cm2 wound area every other day for another 6 weeks, the wound rapidly healed and re-epithelialized basically. The follow-up for 5 weeks showed that the wound healed completely without any discomfort. No side effect was found.