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中国直饮水及相关卫生标准比较分析

王婷 孙东雷 赵田禾 张遵真

王婷, 孙东雷, 赵田禾, 等. 中国直饮水及相关卫生标准比较分析[J]. 四川大学学报(医学版), 2021, 52(5): 729-734. doi: 10.12182/20210660101
引用本文: 王婷, 孙东雷, 赵田禾, 等. 中国直饮水及相关卫生标准比较分析[J]. 四川大学学报(医学版), 2021, 52(5): 729-734. doi: 10.12182/20210660101
WANG Ting, SUN Dong-lei, ZHAO Tian-he, et al. Comparative Analysis of Direct Drinking Water and the Relevant Sanitation Standards in China[J]. JOURNAL OF SICHUAN UNIVERSITY (MEDICAL SCIENCE EDITION), 2021, 52(5): 729-734. doi: 10.12182/20210660101
Citation: WANG Ting, SUN Dong-lei, ZHAO Tian-he, et al. Comparative Analysis of Direct Drinking Water and the Relevant Sanitation Standards in China[J]. JOURNAL OF SICHUAN UNIVERSITY (MEDICAL SCIENCE EDITION), 2021, 52(5): 729-734. doi: 10.12182/20210660101

中国直饮水及相关卫生标准比较分析

doi: 10.12182/20210660101
基金项目: 四川省科技厅重点项目(No. 2020YJ0232)资助
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    E-mail:zhangzunzhen@163.com

Comparative Analysis of Direct Drinking Water and the Relevant Sanitation Standards in China

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  • 摘要: 随着经济技术的发展和优质饮用水需求的提高,直接饮用水(简称直饮水)在中国得到广泛应用。然而,迄今尚无对“直饮水”进行明确定义的权威文件,现有的直饮水相关标准或规范并不明确,水质指标缺乏依据,甚至互为矛盾。本文详细阐述了直饮水在中国的由来,系统梳理了我国已有的直饮水规范及标准,从微生物指标、毒理学指标、感官性状和一般化学指标3个方面对比分析了标准中的重要参数。首次深入剖析了直饮水应用乱象,指出了直饮水规范及标准存在的问题,可为规范直饮水市场及直饮水监督管理提供依据,同时为直饮水含义界定、直饮水国家标准立项征集和标准制定工作提供参考。我们提出几点建议:①界定直饮水含义,尽快出台直饮水国家标准。②开展水质基准研究,为我国直饮水标准的制定提供科学依据。③加强直饮水微生物指标及限值的制定,考虑纳入病毒指标。
  • 表  1  7项直饮水相关水质标准中微生物指标比较

    Table  1.   Comparison of microbiology parameters in 7 water quality standards related to direct drinking water

    ParameterGB
    5749-2006
    CJ
    94-2005
    T/WPIA
    001-2017
    DB 32/
    761-2005
    Sanitary Standards
    for Drinking
    Water (2001)
    Reverse
    Osmosis
    Device (2001)
    DB
    29-104-2010
    Total coliform/(CFU/100 mL) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
    Thermotolerant coliforms/(CFU/100 mL) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
    E. coli/(CFU/100 mL) ND ND
    Total bacterial count/(CFU/mL) 100 50 100 50 100 20 50
    Turbidity/NTU 0.3
    Residual chlorine/(mg/L) >0.01 >0.05 >0.05 ≥0.01
    Ozone/(mg/L) >0.01 ≥0.01
    Chlorine dioxide/(mg/L) >0.01 ≥0.01
     ND: Not detected.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  7项直饮水相关水质标准中毒理学指标比较

    Table  2.   Comparison of toxicology parameters in 7 water quality standards related to direct drinking water

    ParameterGB
    5749-2006
    CJ
    94-2005
    T/WPIA
    001-2017
    DB 32/
    761-2005
    Sanitary Standards for
    Drinking Water (2001)
    Reverse Osmosis
    Device (2001)
    DB
    29-104-2010
    Arsenic/(mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.01
    Cadmium/(mg/L) 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.003
    Chromium/(mg/L) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Lead/(mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Mercury/(mg/L) 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
    Selenium/(mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Cyanide/(mg/L) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    Fluoride/(mg/L) 1 1 1 1 1 1
    Nitrate/(mg/L) 10, when underground water
    is restricted (20)
    10 10 20 20 10
    Chloroform/(mg/L) 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.015
    Carbon tetrachloride/(mg/L) 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 8 0.002
    Bromate/(mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Formaldehyde/(mg/L) 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
    Chlorite/(mg/L) 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.7
    Chlorate/(mg/L) 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
    Silver/(mg/L) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  7项直饮水相关水质标准中感官性状和一般化学指标比较

    Table  3.   Comparison of sensory perception and general chemistry parameters in 7 water quality standards related to direct drinking water

    ParameterGB
    5749-2006
    CJ
    94-2005
    T/WPIA
    001-2017
    DB 32/
    761-2005
    Sanitary Standards for
    Drinking Water (2001)
    Reverse Osmosis
    Device (2001)
    DB
    29-104-2010
    Color 15 5 5 5 15 5 5
    Turbidity/NTU 1, Special conditions (3) 0.5 0.3 0.5 1, special conditions (<5) 1 0.1
    Odor and taste Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
    Visible matter No No No No No No No
    pH 6.5-8.5 6.0-8.5 6.0-8.5 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5 >5 6.0-8.5
    Aluminum/(mg/L) 0.2 0.2 0.05-0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
    Iron/(mg/L) 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1
    Manganese/(mg/L) 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.02
    Copper/(mg/L) 1 1 1 1 1 1
    Zinc/(mg/L) 1 1 1 1 1 1
    Chloride/(mg/L) 250 100 100 100 250 250 100
    Sulphate/(mg/L) 250 100 100 100 250 250 100
    Total dissolved solids/(mg/L) 1000 500 400 400 1000 1000 300
    Total hardness/(mg/L) 450 300 200 200 450 450 200
    Oxygen consumption/(mg/L) 3, the oxygen consumption of
    raw water>6 mg/L was 5
    2 1.5 1 3, special conditions (<5) 1 1
    Volatile phenol class/(mg/L) 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
    Anionic synthetic detergent/(mg/L) 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-24
  • 修回日期:  2021-04-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-07
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-20

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